Saturday 19 December 2020

The punjab


The punjab

Prose Lesson:

Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha and many others. We call Lala Lajpat Rai Sher-e-Punjab, and Bhagat Singh Shaheed-e-Azam.

All these brave sons of Punjab sacrificed their lives for the sake of their motherland.

“Lala Lajpat Rai died as a result of the brutal lathi charge while he was leading a procession against the British in 1928. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged for raising their voice against the

British cruelties. Bhagat Singh was then just 26 years old. You can see the portraits of all these freedom fighters in this pavilion.”

“Sir, what is this building that has bullet marks all over its walls?” asked Chintu.

“This is the famous Jallianwala Bagh of Amritsar. Here on 13 April

1919, a crowd of around 20,000 people had gathered for a public meeting. They included men, women and children. The British General

Dyer came there with his riflemen. He blocked all the exit points.

Without giving any warning, he ordered his riflemen to fire at the crowd. About 1000 people were killed and more than 1500 were wounded.


“Punjab suffered a lot on the eve of the independence of the country in 1947. The country was partitioned. There was terrible bloodshed. Thousands of people had to leave their homes and live as refugees. However, the brave Punjabis worked hard and started life afresh. They played a great role in rebuilding the state. They made

Punjab the granary of India with the help of a network of canals and the Bhakra-Nangal project. They brought about a Green Revolution in the country. It is mainly due to the hard work of the Punjabis that

India is no longer a poor country, but a developing nation.”

“Sir, wasn’t Punjab further divided when the state of Haryana was carved out of it?” asked Raju.

“You are right, Raju. In 1966, the state of Punjab was reorganized on the basis of Punjabi and Hindi languages. Some of the hilly areas of Punjab like Lahaul Spiti, the valleys of Kulu and Manali, Kangra, Dalhousie and Shimla were integrated with Himachal Pradesh.

Chandigarh was made the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana.

It was declared a Union Territoy.

“The reorganized Punjab

came into being in November,

1966. Now it has Pakistan on

the west, Jammu and Kashmir

on the north, Himachal Pradesh

on the north-east, and on the

south it has Haryana and


“Sir, here is the model of a dam. I think it is the famous Bhakra

Dam,” said Raju.

“You are right, Raju,” said Mr Matthew. “This dam is 740 feet high. Its length is 518 metres, and it is 9 metres broad. Its reservoir, known as Govind Sagar, stores up to 9 billion cubic metres of water.

It is used for irrigating 10 million acres of fields in Himachal Pradesh,

Punjab and Haryana. The electricity generated in the power houses at Bhakra and Nangal is supplied to the states of Himachal Pradesh,

Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Pandit Nehru called Bhakra

Dam the temple of modern India.”

“Sir, I can hear the melodious strains of Gurbani. There must be a gurdwara nearby,” said Vicky.

“Well, we are near the Golden Temple of Amritsar. It is the holiest shrine of the Sikhs,” said Mr Matthew.

“Sir, they say this temple is surrounded by water,” said Chintu.

“Yes, it is built in the middle of a square tank. To reach the temple, there is a 60-metre long marble path. This path has marble railings on both sides. The temple is double storeyed. It has a golden dome on the top. The marble slabs used in the construction of the temple have on them fine artistic engravings. The inner walls are decorated with precious stones. They have on them priceless paintings and other works of art. On the ground floor, under the dome-shaped roof, lies

Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It is the holy book of the Sikhs. Do you

know it was Sri Guru Arjun Dev, the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, who compiled this holy book?

“Anandpur Sahib is another place of Sikh pilgrimage. It is a small town on the left bank of the Sutlej River. It was founded by Sri Guru Teg Bahadur. Lakhs of Sikhs gather here annually to celebrate the founding of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699.”

“Sir, look here. This is the model of a beautifully-planned city.

It has a number of gardens. Isn’t this Chandigarh?” asked Raju.

“Yes, this is Chandigarh. This beautiful city is situated at the foot of the Shivalik Hills. It was designed by a famous French

architect, Le Corbusier. Being very close to the hills, Chandigarh has a calm and pleasant atmosphere. The rose gardens of Chandigarh are world famous. The city was formally declared open in October

1953 by the then President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad.”

“Sir, there are some shops here that sell sports goods. I would like to buy a cricket bat and a ball,” said Vicky.

“But before you buy, could you tell me which city in Punjab produces these goods?” asked Mr Matthew.

“No, sir,” replied Vicky.

“Well, it is Jalandhar,” said Mr Matthew. “It is one of the most

important centres for the production of sports goods in the country. The other shop there has woollen hosiery goods. They are from Ludhiana. Ninety-five per cent of our hosiery industry is in

Ludhiana. Would you like to buy some hosiery goods also?”

 “No, sir, I can’t decide which ones to buy. Such purchases are made by my parents,” said Chintu.

“Well, children, you would perhaps like to taste these Amritsari jalebis,” said Mr Matthew, moving towards a sweets shop. All the children followed him with smiles on their faces.

New Words / Phrases and their Use

1. recognize (to know who somebody or what something is) – I recognized him as

soon as he entered the room.

2. pavilion (a temporary building used at public events and exhibitions) – Did

you visit the Punjab Pavilion at the Delhi Trade Fair ?

3. zest (enjoyment and enthusiasm) – The Punjabis have a great zest for life.

4. stretch (to put out an arm or leg to reach something) – She stretched across

the table for the butter.

5. alms (money, clothes, etc. given to poor people) – We should never give alms

to those who beg in public places.

6. invasion (act of an army entering another country by force) – The Pakistani

invasion of Kargil was made unsuccessful.

7. brutal (violent and cruel) – It was a case of brutal murder.

8. a number of (a quantity of people or things) – He had to face a number of

problems in his life.

9. due to (because of) – The plan failed due to lack of funds.

10. melodious (pleasant to listen to) – She sang in a melodious voice.

11. shrine (a holy place visited by people) – The Golden Temple is the holiest

shrine of the Sikhs.

12. pilgrimage (a journey to a holy place) – The Jallianwala Bagh has now

become a place of pilgrimage.

13. architect (a person whose job is designing buildings) – Le Corbusier was a

famous French architect.

14. precious (rare and worth a lot of money) – The king’s crown was set with

precious jewels.

15. irrigate (supply water for crops to grow well) – We have a canal near our

village to irrigate our fields.

16. generate (produce something) – We can generate electricity from water.


Textual Comprehension

I. Answer each question briefly:

1. What is special about the Bhangra dance?

2. How can you say that the Punjabis are self-respecting people?

3. What was Punjab’s role in the struggle for India’s Independence?

4. What did General Dyer do at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar?

5. What States have benefited from the Bhakra-Nangal Project?

6. What is the religious importance of Anandpur Sahib?

7. Where is Chandigarh situated? What is it known for?

8. What are Jalandhar and Ludhiana famous for?

9. Who compiled the holy Guru Granth Sahib?

10. What do you know about the holiest shrine of the Sikhs?

11. What do you know about Anandpur Sahib?

12. How have the walls of the Golden Temple been decorated?

II. Put a tick () or a cross () for each statement:

1. General Dyer lived in Jallianwala Bagh.

2. Le Corbusier was a great Indian architect.

3. Bhagat Singh was hanged on 13 April 1919.

4. The Golden Temple has a tank all around it.

5. India became an Independent country in 1947.

6. The Punjabis have faced many foreign invasions.

7. Guru Gobind Singh founded the Khalsa in 1669.

8. Lala Lajpat Rai is known as Shaheed-e-Azam of India.

9. The Bhakra Dam is 518 feet high and 740 feet wide.

10. Fifty per cent of India’s hosiery industry is in Ludhiana.

11. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the President of India in 1953.

12. Chandigarh is situated on the left bank of the Sutlej River.


III. Tick () the correct choice to complete each sentence:

1. The incident of Jallianwala Bagh happened in

a. 1919.

b. 1928.

c. 1947.

2. The reorganisation of Punjab took place in

a. 1947.

b. 1950.

c. 1966.

3. Kulu and Manali are parts of

a. Haryana.

b. Himachal Pradesh.

c. Jammu and Kashmir.

4. Sri Guru Arjun Dev was of the Sikhs.

a. the fifth Guru

b. the sixth Guru

c. the fourth Guru

Vocabulary Enrichment

I. Match the words under column A with their antonyms under column B :


exit fail

lead south

raise lower

order follow

broad slavery

north narrow

famous request

succeed disperse

freedom entrance

assemble notorious


II. Choose the correct word to fill in each blank:

1. empty, blank :

With a face she said, “My purse is.”

2. small, little :

children have hands.

3. handsome, beautiful:

That youngman has a wife.

4. feeble, weak:

The old man spoke in a voice.

5. principal, principle :

The of our school is a man of.

6. union, unity:

You should live in because is strength.

6. tall, high:

He is a man with a round face and a forehead.

III. Complete each sentence with the correct form (V3) of the given verbs:

cut wash polish recharge repair mend pull out arrest

1. He is a corrupt person; I will have him.

2. Don’t wear these dirty clothes; have them.

3. One of my front teeth is loose; I must get it.

4. My hair has grown very long; I must have it.

5. Your shoes are very dirty; you must have them..

6. Misha’s watch has stopped. She wants to have it.

7. The battery of my car has run down; I must get it.

8. These window-panes are broken. I want to get them.

blank empty arrested

Grammar in Use

• We make things.

• We do work.

But ‘make’ and ‘do’ can be used for many different meanings.

There is no fixed rule about their use.

We can learn them only by practice.

We make

tea coffee a tour clothes mistakes

a trip butter a noise a choice a decision

meals a visit money a speech a journey

petrol a plan dinner breakfast a promise

We use ‘do’ (instead of another verb) if the meanings is clear; as ––

We do

our hair the flowers the washing the shopping

the dishes the kitchen the cleaning our homework

I. Complete each sentence, using ‘make’ or ‘do’:

1. A soldier must his duty.

2. Will you please me a favour?

3. Do not forget to your homework.

4. The baby is sleeping. Don’t any noise.

5. I always my teeth before I go to bed.

6. Write carefully and don’t any mistakes.

7. your mind up to what is right?

8. Did the Principal a speech at the meeting?

9. Open your book and the exercise on page 34.

10. You look horribe ! Why don’t you your hair?

11. Don’t be frightened; he just wants to friends.

12. There is nothing to here; let’s our way out.

Some verbs often have two objects; as ––

direct object indirect object

We shall buy some chocolate for the children.

The postman brought a letter for me.

Radha showed her homework to the teacher.

The direct object is the name of a thing; the indirect object is a person.

We can leave the preposition for / to if we put the indirect object before

the direct object; as ––

indirect object direct object

We shall buy the children some chocolate.

The postman brought me a letter.

Radha showed the teacher her homework.

II. Rewrite each sentence without for / to:

1. She cooked a nice meal for us.

2. Gandhiji got freedom for us.

3. Please read this letter to me.

4. He lent some money to his friend.

5. My father bought a camera for me.

6. He found a lovely bride for his son.

7. My mother made a birthday cake for me.

III. Rewrite each sentence using to / for with the indirect object:

1. I made them a cup of tea.

2. I got him a glass of milk.

3. He sold his friend his old car.

4. I have written my sister a letter.

5. Mother cooked them delicious supper.

6. Today the teacher gave us no homework.

7. He paid his brother a large sum of money.

She cooked us a nice meal.

I made a cup of tea for them.

Pronunciation Practice

Read each word aloud. Change the short u to short a.

Write the new word in the first column.

Then change the short a to short i.

Write the new word in the second column.

short a short i short a short i

fun bun

us lump

bug bud

hum rug

hut must

but stuck

luck truck

tuck pun

Composition Writing

I. Write a short paragraph on ‘My Punjab’.

II. Suppose your class arranged a one-day trip to Chandigarh. Write a letter to your friend telling him / her the places you visited and how you enjoyed this trip.

III. Prepare a chart for your class listing all the States with their Capitals, and all the Union Territories of India.


Oft I had heard of Lucy Gray

And, when I crossed the wild,

I chanced to see at break of day

The solitary child.

No mate, no comrade Lucy knew;

She dwelt on a wide moor,

The sweetest thing that ever grew

Beside a human door!

You yet may spy the fawn at play,

The hare upon the green;

But the sweet face of Lucy Gray

Will never more be seen.

“To-night will be a stormy night,

You to the town must go;

And take a lantern, child, to light

Your mother through the snow.”

“That, Father! will I gladly do:

’Tis scarcely afternoon,

The minster-clock has just struck two,

And yonder is the moon!”